In the name of Allah

 

Foundations and Principles of Education in Islam

 

Ayatullah Muhammad Taqi Mesbah

 

 

Introduction

Theoretical Foundations of Education in Islam

The Practical Principles of Education in Islam

 

 

Introduction

Each educational system is based on the idea and vision of its founders about a number of elements: the true nature and the ontological dimensions of human being, the objective(s) they consider for education, and their idea about how human beings develop and advance toward the given objective(s). In fact, these visions and understandings shape the foundations of education in every system of thought, even though they may not be consciously taken into consideration, or may not be explicitly mentioned.

Naturally, Islamic educational system is also based on a series of specific foundations, stemming from an Islamic vision about the aforementioned issues. Therefore, it is necessary for us to first and foremost pay attention to these theoretical bedrocks, and then explain educational practical principles on their basis before trying to elaborate on the Islamic educational system.

By deliberating upon the Islamic idea about the true nature of human beings, their ontological dimensions, the goal of their creation, their ultimate perfection, and the way they move towards this end, one is able to consider the following twelve points as cornerstones of an Islamic education. Of course, the ultimate goal of Islamic education is but preparing the ground for maximal perfection of human beings, and practical aims are understood in this direction.

Theoretical Foundations of Education in Islam

1. The True Nature of Human Being: From an Islamic point of view, human being is not merely a corporeal organism, but rather possesses a celestial element that remains after the dispersion of body1, and lives forever, either with perpetual beatitude or eternal misery. In fact, human being is human because of one’s soul, and body serves as a means of activity, or as a vehicle for action and motion; of course, the soundness and strength of an instrument is something that should be taken care of.

2. The Position of Human Being in the World: Human being, from amongst the creatures of this world, is blessed with certain bounties and capacities that differentiates it from others. Subtleties that exist in human exterior and interior organs, especially in the brain and nervous system, and its unique psychological capabilities cannot be found in any other living organism. Due to these same characteristics, human being is able to manipulate natural events and to employ them in the service of its own progress and perfection. Bestowing such privileges upon human beings is a Divine veneration, as mentioned in the Qur’an.2

3. Human being on a crossroad (between two infinites): Powers and potentialities, which the Almighty Allah has bestowed upon humankind, are one’s genetic and innate assets for moving forward towards the final goal. Nevertheless, putting these divine resources to work depends on one’s own will, choice, decision, and selection. One can take advantage of these bounties to travel the path to the actual perfection and obtain eternal beatitude, as one can also abuse them and hence, journey toward slump and baseness so much so one becomes less worthy than animals3, and buys eternal misery for oneself. Therefore, the human route can be mapped between two infinities, one ascending to infinite perfection and beatitude, and the other crashing into infinite wretchedness and anguish.4 So the ultimate human value and dignity is contingent upon choosing piety5, and hence, not all people would possess absolute and equal value, but rather believers and committed people who act properly, have positive value, and disbelievers who commit improper deeds gain negative value, each of whom have multilevel ranking6.

4. The aim of the creation of humankind (Ultimate perfection): Humankind is created with unique qualities in order to travel the path to perfection with free will and conscious choice7, to be worthy of receiving specific blessings bestowed upon one as a result of one’s discretional move, and to reach the position of proximity to God, accompanied by perpetual beatitude. And since such a journey must be done at one’s discretion, there must be an opposite alternative path culminating in permanent misery and punishment.8

5. Temporal world as a prelude to the hereafter: Considering the aim of human creation, it becomes evident that one’s life in this world is a limited and preparatory transience for self-realization, progress, and the objectification of potentialities. The stable and eternal result of this life appears in the hereafter. If people choose, in this world, the direction of perfection, they will reside in the edifice of everlasting bounty and mercy, and if they choose the opposite, they will go to the place of interminable torment and decay. According to the Qur’an, this world is “the stage of trialâ€‌9, so that the righteous are differentiated from the transgressors, and in the hereafter, all will meet what they deserve.

6. General means of movement: Human ascent towards the summits of perfection and beatitude, or one’s descent into the canyons of decay and destruction are the results of one’s actions and behavior, whether internal (such as remembering God) or external. The most one acts freely and consciously, the most effective they will become upon one’s destiny by accelerating the movement. Such behaviors notwithstanding, no ethical good or evil exists, and hence no reward or punishment is deserved.10

7. Conditions for volitional movement: Crystallizing one’s ascending or descending movement, human volitional behaviors stem from one’s instinctive and natural tendencies. Giving direction to such actions depends on knowing specific facts, believing in certain realities, and adopting special values.11 Moreover, human external actions are contingent upon natural and social possibilities and the availability of outward conditions too.

8. The bare minimum in effective choice: Human primary behaviors (such as those in the age of infancy) stem from innate inclinations, information gathered through simple experiments, and the use of material conditions—which are provided without one’s volition. This kind of behaviors—though not totally devoid of some sort of decision and choice—has no final effect on one’s eternal beatitude or misery because they lack sufficient freedom and awareness. Gradually, behaviors become more complex, and fanning the flames of desires, acquiring knowledge and insights, and bringing about exterior means and conditions are more or less included in the domain of one’s volition and choice. These conditions, therefore, pave the way for taking long and decisive steps, which comes about when a person achieves one’s necessary cognitive development (the age of puberty and duty). At this point, the minimum necessary condition for conscious choice—effectual in perpetual beatitude and misery—is attained, and an individual becomes subject to serious responsibilities.12

9. The relation of individual differences with responsibilities: Human individuals are not on a par regarding their God-given possessions (both physical abilities and psychological capabilities), as they vary in enjoying natural and social bounties as well as means for external activities. Such differences are the results of the cause-effect system that governs the world, and follows the wisely Divine plan.13 The quantity and quality of responsibilities, and the vastness or narrowness of the scope for ascension or descension differs respectively. The general law is that everyone is responsible before God who has bestowed these bounties upon him/her14 within the limits of one’s capacity and capability15, and according to the scope of one’s available choices and alternatives. Therefore, the extent of one’s possible progress and perfection and the degree of one’s potential relapse and regress would be symmetrical and proportionate.

10. The effect of education (the role of teacher and educator): Human beings have the opportunity to receive help from others in acquiring knowledge, learning values, and actualizing their potentialities in general, as well as correcting their mistakes and misdeeds. Thereof, the important role of teachers and educators become evident, because they are the ones who can broaden the range of one’s knowledge and reasoning by teaching worthy knowledge and providing useful information16, and are able to assist their audience in choosing the right option, controlling their selfish desires, achieving moral virtues such as self-devotion and sacrifice, and in sum, to give them a hand to worship God. In this way, they grow to be precious means for applying the Divine goal in creating human beings, as well as taking long steps in the direction of their own perfection.17

11. The inevitability of social life and its requisites: People need to cooperate and coexist with their fellow human beings in order to be able to continue their living, meet their life needs, and fight various threats. Social life, on its turn, rests on the division of labor, just distribution of benefits and products, laws and rulings, and an executing system for their implementation. Without such mechanisms, social life will be crippled by anarchy, and people are deprived of resources necessary for their journey toward perfection. On the other hand, the isolation of individuals makes their life miserable, or even impossible, as it leaves society without their cooperation, and both the consequences are against the expediency and rationale of the creation of humankind. Moreover, it is basically in the context of a social life that various efforts and conflicts become possible, and ordeals and decisions in different dimensions are given a chance.18

12. Social responsibilities: Since the path an individual travels during one’s life is bilateral, and its direction depends upon the decision and choice made by the individual or community, there are always people who not only take steps against their own expediencies, toward misery and self-destruction, but also obstruct and hinder others from progress. They initiate various forms of injustices and aggressions, and if there is no effectual endeavor aiming at guiding the misled19, eliminating the mischief of aggressors, and standing up for the disadvantaged and victims, before long, aggression and misdeed will dominate the world, and there will remain no opportunity for philanthropists and those who are apt to advance towards perfection.20 As a consequence, different sorts of social responsibilities are respectively determined for individuals, groups, and official departments of the government.

The Practical Principles of Education in Islam

Based on the aforementioned foundations, one can conclude some general points for the quality of education, we call them here, “the practical principles of educationâ€‌ and they are as follow:

1. An accurate appraisal of the material and spiritual needs: The content of education should be arranged in a way that the instructed recognize the essentiality of the psychological and spiritual dimension of human being, and regards material necessities as means (and not ends).21 At the same time, one has to avoid extremism in ascetic advices which may terminate in bodily harms, or even sometimes psychological abnormalities; one should not forget observing sanity principles, physical education, and rationally calculated recreation.

2. Provoking the sense of self-esteem and self-respect: An educator should stimulate a sense of self-esteem and self-respect due to the unique position of human being amongst creatures, and exceptional bounties the Almighty God has bestowed upon humankind—whether physical and psychological, or external and social—as well as the dominance He has given to people over nature. A teacher, therefore, should make students cognizant of the fact that engaging in base actions is tantamount to soiling the jewel of humanity, and following selfish desires equals the enslavement and abatement of one’s intellect and heavenly spirit.22 On the other hand, because bodily organs and psychic forces are trusts of God, the same as the external bounties; therefore, one’s encounter with, and employment of, them has to be in accordance with the consent of their real owner, i.e. the Almighty God, so that His trust is not breached. A teacher and educator should also consider students as trusts of God, entrusted to him/her in order to be taught the best material by the best method and to be trained in the best manner.23

3. Struggle against oblivion: As humankind is constantly on a crossing, one leading to infinite advancement and the other to infinite relapse, the instructed should always be made attentive to the significance of his/her situation, so that one is not conceited by the prime blessings of God and the temporal bounties.24 Such awareness prevents one both from being confused like some humanists who assume these privileges a reason for eternal pride, and from passing one’s time and entire life with negligence and vanity.25 Educators should also take advantage of the innate instincts of seeking self-interest and self-perfection, and avoiding harms in the process of speeding up one’s move toward perfection, as it is apparent in the teachings of the Holy Qur’an26 and the tradition of the infallibles (may God’s peace be upon them).

4. Vivifying God’s remembrance: Taking the goal of human creation, i.e. attaining God’s proximity, into consideration, one has to vivify the remembrance of God in the heart of the instructed, so that the student is provided with spiritual peace and serenity27, as well as a direction-finder to determine and/or correct one’s itinerary. This also can serve one to enhance one’s actions by injecting into it a divine motivation.28

5. Exchange of finite with the infinite: Considering the fact that the temporal life is a prelude to the hereafter, one should conclude two significant results: first, does not think of temporal pleasures and sufferings as cardinal; neither enamored with its joys, nor fear its pains.29 Secondly, one has to recognize the true value of every moment of one’s life, because by spending them in doing what God desires, one can attain eternal beatitude, as exhausting them in ways antagonist to values will lead to eternal misery. Therefore, every moment of life is priceless, not comparable to the value of tons of gold and diamond.

6. Fighting dependency: Since one’s perfection and eternal beatitude is solely determined by one’s own willful activity30, and even liability for intercession (Shafaâ€کat) should also be acquired through proper deeds31, so the educator must revive the spirit of self-reliance and independence, reinforce a sense of responsibility and conscience, and struggle against encumberment, subjection, and subordination to others32, and remind the instructed this point in all behaviors and encounters (i.e. in writing homework, etc.).

7. Attentiveness toward freedom in action: Considering the role of “free choiceâ€‌ in the human motion toward perfection, the instructed should be given the opportunity for freedom in action, instead of pushing him/her into passivity. An educator has to avoid making an imposition and infliction out of instructions and tutorials; instead, in cases that the expedience of the student necessitates an intervention by the educator, one has to be careful to do the job indirectly, so that the learner does not feel much pressure and limitation. For this reason, obligations should, as far as possible, accompany logical arguments and does not exceed the boundaries of guidance.

8. Observing the principle of graduality: Taking the graduality of human progress and perfection, whether natural or acquired, into account, a teacher and educator should always be mindful about what the students’ age and natural/social factors necessitate. Accordingly, one has to try to elevate the instructed gradually and step by step, without expecting swift and sudden jumps, as he/she must take intelligent measures to prevent them from excessive academic or self-control activities which might result in physical ailment or spiritual disorder.33

9. Flexibility and equilibrium: Because of individual and group differences, necessary and rational flexibility should be observed in both programming curriculum and its enforcement. One has to also avoid insistence on rigid and monotonous schedules and those that does not make distinctions between different students, culminating in breaching their rights, and the frustration of most of them. Therefore, one has to take account of equilibrium as a principle.

10. Giving priority to what is more important: Educators/teachers play a significant role in growing young students and cultivating their potentialities. Bearing this in mind, they have to carefully take the expedience of each and every learner into account, as well as what is suitable for the whole of the Islamic society and the human society in general. Both curriculum planners and educators should steer clear of programs and courses that waste time and squander life, or record low compared to superior goals. They should pay more attention to issues more effective regarding human eternal wellbeing (e.g. Islamic beliefs and ethics), and teach them more suitably and more appealingly, and try to set themselves as good role models for the behavior of their students.

11. Natural and social knowledge: Social life is inevitable and has its requirements and obligations. On the other hand, material enjoyment is necessary for providing individual and social needs34, and for sustaining the dignity and honor of the Islamic society35. These facts reveal the necessity of introducing natural, mathematical, and social sciences to a curriculum, by delineating general and specialized syllabi, carefully taking into consideration students’ age and mental requirements as well as society’s needs and possibilities. It is worth mentioning that in all cases, the main goal, namely, proximity to the Almighty God has to be given special attention and vehemence. A pedagogue should never lose any opportunity for reviving divine motivations and transcendent values, and for removing negligence and fighting egoism. In other words, all goals are to be dealt with as introductions to the ultimate end.

12. Reinforcing a sense of responsibility toward social expediency: The variety of social duties requires the educational system to be directed toward solidarity and altruism. Strengthening such virtues as cooperation, mutual aid, self-sacrifice, disinterestedness, benevolence, and seeking justice; and fighting vigorously such vices as selfishness, and indifference towards social expediencies should be high on the agenda of both those planning curricula and teachers/educators in treating students.36 Special emphasis has to be put on cultivating in the instructed such morale as chivalry, combating injustice, struggling corruption, taking jihad against tyrants, and supporting the oppressed and the deprived. In this way, qualified and efficient people are trained for building an ideal society who can play their roles in actualizing the divine goals on earth.


1- ط³ظˆط±ط© ط­ط¬ط±/ط¢ظٹط© 29طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© طµ/ط¢ظٹط© 72: آ«ظˆ ظ†ظپط®طھ ظپظٹظ‡ ظ…ظ† ط±ظˆط­ظٹآ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ظ…ط¤ظ…ظ†ظˆظ†/ ط¢ظٹط© 14: آ«ط«ظ… ط§ظ†ط´ط£ظ†ط§ظ‡ ط®ظ„ظ‚ظ‹ ط¢ط®ط± ظپطھط¨ط§ط±ظƒ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط§ط­ط³ظ† ط§ظ„ط®ط§ظ„ظ‚ظٹظ†آ» ط³ظˆط±ط© ط³ط¬ط¯ظ‡/ ط¢ظٹط© 9: ظˆ ط«ظ… ط³ظˆظ‘ط§ظ‡ ظˆ ظ†ظپط® ظپظٹظ‡ ظ…ظ† ط±ظˆط­ظ‡آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط³ط¬ط¯ظ‡/ ط¢ظٹط© 11طŒ آ«ظ‚ظ„ ظٹطھظˆظپظ‘ط§ظƒظ… ظ…ظ„ظƒ ط§ظ„ظ…ظˆطھ ط§ظ„ط°ظٹ ظˆ ظƒظ„ظ‘ ط¨ظƒظ… ط«ظ…ظ‘ ط§ظ„ظٹ ط±ط¨ظ‘ظƒظ… طھط±ط¬ط¹ظˆظ†آ».

Sإ«rah 2ijr, ؤ€yah 29 & Sإ«rah |ؤپd, ؤ€yah 72: “And I breathed into him of My spirit,â€‌ Sإ«rah Mu’minum, ؤ€yah 14: “Then We produced him as [yet] another creature, so blessed is Allah, the best of creators,â€‌ Sإ«rah Sajdah, ؤ€yah 9: “Then He proportioned him and breathed into him of His spirit,â€‌ and Sإ«rah Sajdah, ؤ€yah 11: “Say, you will be taken away by the angel of death who has been charged with you, then you will be brought back to your Lord.â€‌.

2- ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ط³ط±ط§ط،/ ط¢ظٹط© 70: آ«ظˆظ„ظ‚ط¯ ظƒط±ظ‘ظ…ظ†ط§ ط¨ظ†ظٹ‌ط¢ط¯ظ… ظˆ ط­ظ…ظ„ظ†ط§ظ‡ظ… ظپظٹ ط§ظ„ط¨ط±ظ‘ ظˆ ط§ظ„ط¨ط­ط± ظˆ ط±ط²ظ‚ظ†ط§ظ‡ظ… ظ…ظ† ط§ظ„ط·ط¨ط§طھ ظˆ ظپط¶ظ‘ظ„ظ†ط§ظ‡ظ… ط¹ظ„ظٹ ظƒط«ظٹط± ظ…ظ…ظ‘ظ† ط®ظ„ظ‚ظ†ط§ طھظپط¶ظٹظ„ط§آ».

Sإ«rah Isra’, ؤ€yah 70: “Certainly We have honored the Children of Adam and carried them over land and sea, and provided them with all the good things, and given them an advantage over many of those We have created with a complete preference.â€‌

3- ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ط¹ط±ط§ظپ/ ط¢ظٹط© 179: آ« ظˆظ„ظ‚ط¯ ط°ط±ط£ظ†ط§ ظ„ط¬ظ‡ظ†ظ‘ظ… ظƒط«ظٹط±ط§ظ‹ ظ…ظ† ط§ظ„ط¬ظ†ظ‘ ظˆ ط§ظ„ط§ظ†ط³ ظ„ظ‡ظ… ظ‚ظ„ظˆط¨ ظ„ط§ظٹظپظ‚ظ‡ظˆظ† ط¨ظ‡ط§ ظˆ ظ„ظ‡ظ… ط§ط¹ظٹظ† ظ„ط§ظٹط¨طµط±ظˆظ† ط¨ظ‡ط§ ظˆ ظ„ظ‡ظ… ط¢ط°ط§ظ† ظ„ط§ ظٹط³ظ…ط¹ظˆظ† ط¨ظ‡ط§ ط§ظˆظ„ط¦ظƒ ظƒط§ظ„ط§ظ†ط¹ط§ظ… ط¨ظ„ ظ‡ظ… ط§ط¶ظ„ ط§ظˆظ„ط¦ظƒ ظ‡ظ… ط§ظ„ط؛ط§ظپظ„ظˆظ†آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ظ†ظپط§ظ„/ ط¢ظٹط© 22: آ«ط§ظ†ظ‘ ط´ط±ظ‘ ط§ظ„ط¯ظˆط§ط¨ظ‘ ط¹ظ†ط¯ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط§ظ„طµظ…ظ‘ ط§ظ„ط¨ظƒظ… ط§ظ„ط°ظٹظ† ظ„ط§ظٹط¹ظ‚ظ„ظˆظ†آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ظ†ظپط§ظ„/ ط¢ظٹط© 55: آ«ط§ظ†ظ‘ ط´ط±ظ‘ ط§ظ„ط¯ظˆط§ط¨ظ‘ ط¹ظ†ط¯ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط§ظ„ط°ظٹظ† ظƒظپط±ظˆط§ ظپظ‡ظ… ظ„ط§ظٹط¤ظ…ظ†ظˆظ†آ»

 Sإ«rah Aâ€کrؤپf, ؤ€yah 179: “Certainly We have created for hell many of the jinn and humans: they have hearts with which they do not understand, they have eyes with which they do not see, they have ears with which they do not hear. They are like cattle; rather they are more astray. It is they who are the heedless.â€‌

4- ط³ظˆط±ط© طھظٹظ†/ ط¢ظٹط© 4ظ€6: آ«ظ„ظ‚ط¯ ط®ظ„ظ‚ظ†ط§ ط§ظ„ط§ظ†ط³ط§ظ† ظپظٹ ط§ط­ط³ظ† طھظ‚ظˆظٹظ…. ط«ظ…ظ‘ ط±ط¯ط¯ظ†ط§ظ‡ ط§ط³ظپظ„ ط³ط§ظپظ„ظٹظ†. ط§ظ„ط§ظ‘ ط§ظ„ط°ظٹظ† ط¢ظ…ظ†ظˆط§ ظˆ ط¹ظ…ظ„ظˆط§ ط§ظ„طµط§ظ„ط­ط§طھ ظپظ„ظ‡ظ… ط§ط¬ط± ط؛ظٹط±ظ…ظ…ظ†ظˆظ†آ».

Sإ«rah Tؤ«n, ؤ€yah 4-6: “Certainly We created human in the best of forms; then We relegated him to the lowest of the low, except those who have faith and do righteous deeds. There will be an everlasting reward for them.â€‌

5- ط³ظˆط±ط© ط­ط¬ط±ط§طھ/ ط¢ظٹط© 13: آ«ط§ظ†ظ‘ ط§ظƒط±ظ…ظƒظ… ط¹ظ†ط¯ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط§طھظ‚ظٹظƒظ…آ».

Sإ«rah 2ujurؤپt, ؤ€yah 13: “Indeed the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the most Godwary among you.â€‌

6- ط³ظˆط±ط© ط¢ظ„ ط¹ظ…ط±ط§ظ†/ ط¢ظٹط© 163: آ«ظ‡ظ… ط¯ط±ط¬ط§طھ ط¹ظ†ط¯ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ظ†ط¹ط§ظ…/ ط¢ظٹط© 132طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ط­ظ‚ط§ظپ/ ط¢ظٹط© 19: آ«ظˆ ظ„ظƒظ„ظ‘ ط¯ط±ط¬ط§طھظŒ ظ…ظ…ظ‘ط§ ط¹ظ…ظ„ظˆط§آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ظ‡ظˆط¯/ 105ظ€108: آ«ظپظ…ظ†ظ‡ظ… ط´ظ‚ظٹظ‘ ظˆ ط³ط¹ظٹط¯...آ»

 Sإ«rah ؤ€l-â€کImrؤپn, ؤ€yah 163: “They have ranks with Allah,â€‌ Sإ«rah Anâ€کؤپm, ؤ€yah 132 & Sإ«rah A1qؤپf, ؤ€yah 19: “For everyone there are ranks in accordance with what they have done,â€‌ & Sإ«rah Hإ«d, ؤ€yah 105-108: “…some of them will be wretched and [some] felicitous. As for the wretched, they shall be in the Fire: their lot therein will be groaning and wailing. They shall remain in it for as long as the heavens and the earth endure—except what your Lord may wish—indeed your Lord does whatever He desires. As for the felicitous, they will in paradise. They will remain in it for as long as the heavens and earth endure—except what your Lord may wish—an endless bounty.â€‌

7- ط³ظˆط±ط© ظƒظ‡ظپ/ ط¢ظٹط© 29: آ«ظپظ…ظ† ط´ط§ط، ظپظ„ظٹط¤ظ…ظ† ظˆ ظ…ظ† ط´ط§ط، ظپظ„ظٹظƒظپط±آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ظ†ظپط§ظ„/ ط¢ظٹط© 42: آ«ظ„ظٹظ‡ظ„ظƒ ظ…ظ† ظ‡ظ„ظƒ ط¹ظ† ط¨ظٹظ‘ظ†ط© ظˆ ظٹط­ظٹظٹ ظ…ظ† ط­ظٹظ‘ ط¹ظ† ط¬ظ†ظ‘ط©آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ظ†ط³ط§ظ†/ ط¢ظٹط© 2 آ«ط§ظ†ظ‘ط§ ط®ظ„ظ‚ظ†ط§ ط§ظ„ط§ظ†ط³ط§ظ† ظ…ظ† ظ†ط·ظپط© ط§ظ…ط´ط§ط¬ ظ†ط¨طھظ„ظٹظ‡ ظپط¬ط¹ظ„ظ†ط§ظ‡ ط³ظ…ظٹط¹ط§ظ‹ ط¨طµظٹط±ط§ظ‹آ».

Sإ«rah Kahf, ؤ€yah 29: “…let anyone who wishes believe it, and let anyone who wishes disbelieve it,â€‌ and Sإ«rah Anfؤپl, ؤ€yah 42: “…so that he who perishes might perish by a manifest proof, and he who live may live on by a manifest proof,â€‌ & Sإ«rah Insؤپn, ؤ€yah 2: “Indeed We created man from the drop of a mixed fluid so that We may test him. So We made him endowed with hearing and sight.â€‌

8- ط³ظˆط±ط© ط¨ظ„ط¯/ ط¢ظٹط© 10: آ«ظˆ ظ‡ط¯ظٹظ†ط§ظ‡ ط§ظ„ظ†ط¬ط¯ظٹظ†آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ظٹط³/ ط¢ظٹط© 60ظ€61: آ«ط§ظ„ظ… ط§ط¹ظ‡ط¯ ط§ظ„ظٹظƒظ… ظٹط§ ط¨ظ†ظٹ‌ط¢ط¯ظ… ط§ظ† ظ„ط§ طھط¹ط¨ط¯ظˆط§ ط§ظ„ط´ظٹط·ط§ظ† ط§ظ†ظ‘ظ‡ ظ„ظƒظ… ط¹ط¯ظˆظ‘ ظ…ط¨ظٹظ†. ظˆ ط§ظ† ط§ط¹ط¨ط¯ظˆظ†ظٹ ظ‡ط°ط§ طµط±ط§ط· ظ…ط³طھظ‚ظٹظ…آ».

Sإ«rah Balad: ؤ€yah 10: “And [have We not] shown him the two paths [of good and evil]?â€‌ & Sإ«rah Yؤپsؤ«n, ؤ€yah 60-61: “Did I not exhort you, O children of Adam, saying, “Do not worship Satan. He is indeed your manifest enemy. Worship Me. That is a straight path?â€‌

9- ط³ظˆط±ط© ظ‡ظˆط¯/ ط¢ظٹط© 7: آ«ظ„ظ†ط¨ظ„ظˆظ‡ظ… ط§ظٹظ‘ظ‡ظ… ط§ط­ط³ظ† ط¹ظ…ط§ط¯آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ظ†ط¨ظٹط§ط،/ ط¢ظٹط© 35: آ«ظˆظ†ط¨ظ„ظˆظƒظ… ط¨ط§ظ„ط´ط±ظ‘ ظˆ ط§ظ„ط®ظٹط± ظپطھظ†ط© ظˆ ط§ظ„ظٹظ†ط§ طھط±ط¬ط¹ظˆظ†آ».

 Sإ«rah Hإ«d, ؤ€yah 7 & Sإ«rah Mulk, ؤ€yah 2: “…that He may test you [to see] which of you is best in conduct;â€‌ & Sإ«rah Kahf, ؤ€yah 7: “…so that We may try them [to see] which of them is best in conduct;â€‌ & Sإ«rah Anbؤ«ya’, ؤ€yah 35: “…and We will try you with ill and good by way of test, and to Us you will be brought back.â€‌

10- ط³ظˆط±ط© ط¨ظ‚ط±ظ‡/ ط¢ظٹط© 286: آ«ظ„ظ‡ط§ ظ…ط§ ظƒط³ط¨طھ ظˆ ط¹ظ„ظٹظ‡ط§ ظ…ط§ ط§ظƒطھط³ط¨طھآ«طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط¢ظ„ ط¹ظ…ط±ط§ظ†/ ط¢ظٹط© 25: آ«ظˆ ظˆظپظ‘ظٹطھ ظƒظ„ظ‘ ظ†ظپط³ ظ…ط§ ظƒط³ط¨طھ ظˆ ظ‡ظ… ظ„ط§ظٹط¸ظ„ظ…ظˆظ†آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ط¨ط±ط§ظ‡ظٹظ…/ ط¢ظٹط© 51: آ«ظ„ظٹط¬ط²ظٹ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظƒظ„ظ‘ ظ†ظپط³ ظ…ط§ ظƒط³ط¨طھآ» ظˆ ....

Sإ«rah Baqarah, ؤ€yah 286: “Whatever [good] it earns is to its benefit, and whatever [evil] it incurs is to its harm;â€‌ Sإ«rah ؤ€l-i â€کImrؤپn, ؤ€yah 25: “…and every soul shall be recompensed fully for what it has earned, and they will not be wronged;â€‌ & Sإ«rah Ibrؤپhؤ«m, ؤ€yah 51: “…so that Allah may reward every soul for what it has earned;â€‌ & …

11- ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ظ†ط³ط§ظ†/ ط¢ظٹط© 3: آ«ط§ظ†ط§ ظ‡ط¯ظٹظ†ط§ظ‡ ط§ظ„ط³ط¨ظٹظ„ ط§ظ…ظ‘ط§ ط´ط§ظƒط±ط§ظ‹ ظˆ ط§ظ…ظ‘ط§ ظƒظپظˆط±ط§آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ظ„ط´ظ…ط³/ ط¢ظٹط© 8: آ«ظپط§ظ„ظ‡ظ…ظ‡ط§ ظپط¬ظˆط±ظ‡ط§ ظˆ طھظ‚ظˆط§ظ‡ط§آ».

 Sإ«rah Insؤپn, آ­آ­ؤ€yah 3: “Indeed We have guided him to the way, be he grateful or ungrateful;â€‌ Sإ«rah Shams, ؤ€yah 8: “And inspired it with [discernment between] its vices and virtues.â€‌

12- ط³ظˆط±ط© ظ†ط³ط§ط،/ ط¢ظٹط© 6: آ«ظˆط§ط¨طھظ„ظˆط§ ط§ظ„ظٹطھط§ظ…ظٹ ط­طھظ‘ظٹ ط§ط°ط§ ط¨ظ„ط؛ظˆط§ ط§ظ„ظ†ظƒط§ط­ ظپط§ظ† ط¢ظ†ط³طھظ… ظ…ظ†ظ‡ظ… ط±ط´ط¯ط§ظ‹ ظپط§ط¯ظپط¹ظˆط§ ط§ظ„ظٹظ‡ظ… ط§ظ…ظˆط§ظ„ظ‡ظ…آ».

 Sإ«rah Nisؤپ’, ؤ€yah 6: “Test the orphans when they reach the age of marriage. Then if you discern in them maturity, deliver to them their property.â€‌

13- ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ظ†ط¹ط§ظ…/ ط¢ظٹط© 156: آ«ظˆ ط±ظپط¹ ط¨ط¹ط¶ظƒظ… ظپظˆظ‚ ط¨ط¹ط¶ ط¯ط±ط¬ط§طھ ظ„ظٹط¨ظ„ظˆظƒظ… ظپظٹ ظ…ط§ ط§طھط§ظƒظ…آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ظ†ط­ظ„/ ط¢ظٹط© 71: آ«ظˆ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظپط¶ظ‘ظ„ ط¨ط¹ط¶ظƒظ… ط¹ظ„ظٹ ط¨ط¹ط¶ ظپظٹ ط§ظ„ط±ط²ظ‚آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ظ†ط³ط§ط،/ ط¢ظٹط© 32: آ«ظˆ ظ„ط§ طھطھظ…ظ†ظ‘ظˆط§ ظ…ط§ ظپط¶ظ‘ظ„ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط¨ط¹ط¶ظƒظ… ط¹ظ„ظٹ ط¨ط¹ط¶آ» ظˆ ...

Sإ«rah Anâ€کؤپm, ؤ€yah 165: “…and raised some of you in rank above others so that He may test you in respect to what He has given you;â€‌ Sإ«rah Na1l, ؤ€yah 71: “And Allah has granted some of you an advantage over others in [respect of] provision;â€‌ Sإ«rah Nisؤپ’, ؤ€yah 32: “Do not covet the advantage which Allah has given some of you over others;â€‌ etc.

14- ط³ظˆط±ط© ظ†ط­ظ„/ ط¢ظٹط© 93: آ«ظˆ ظ„طھظڈط³ط£ظ„ظ†ظ‘ ط¹ظ…ظ‘ط§ ظƒظ†طھظ… طھط¹ظ…ظ„ظˆظ†آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© طھظƒط§ط«ط±/ ط¢ظٹط© 8: آ«ط«ظ…ظ‘ ظ„طھط³ط£ظ„ظ†ظ‘ ظٹظˆظ…ط¦ط° ط¹ظ† ط§ظ„ظ†ط¹ظٹظ…آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ط³ط±ط§ط،/ ط¢ظٹط© 36: آ«ط§ظ† ط§ظ„ط³ظ…ط¹ ظˆ ط§ظ„ط¨طµط± ظˆ ط§ظ„ظپط¤ط§ط¯ ظƒظ„ظ‘ ط§ظˆظ„ط¦ظƒ ظƒط§ظ† ط¹ظ†ظ‡ ظ…ط³ط¤ظˆظ„ط§آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© طµط§ظپظ‘ط§طھ/ ط¢ظٹط© 24: آ«ظˆظ‚ظگظپظˆظ‡ظ… ط§ظ†ظ‘ظ‡ظ… ظ…ط³ط¤ظˆظ„ظˆظ†آ».

 Sإ«rah Na1l, ؤ€yah 93: “…and you will surely be questioned concerning what you used to do;â€‌ Sإ«rah Takؤپthur, ؤ€yah 8: “Then, that day, you will surely be questioned concerning the blessing;â€‌ Sإ«rah Isrؤپ’, ؤ€yah 36: “Indeed the hearing, the eyesight, and the heart—all of these are accountable;â€‌ Sإ«rah |ؤپffؤپt, ؤ€yah 24: “Stop them! For they must be questioned.â€‌

15- ط³ظˆط±ط© ط¨ظ‚ط±ظ‡/ ط¢ظٹط© 233: آ«ظ„ط§ طھظƒظ„ظ‘ظپ ظ†ظپط³ط§ظ‹ ط§ظ„ط§ظ‘ ظˆط³ط¹ظ‡ط§آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط¨ظ‚ط±ظ‡/ ط¢ظٹط© 286: آ«ظ„ط§ ظٹظƒظ„ظپ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظ†ظپط³ط§ظ‹ ط§ظ„ط§ ظˆط³ط¹ظ‡ط§آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط·ظ„ط§ظ‚/ ط¢ظٹط© 7: آ«ظ„ط§ ظٹظƒظ„ظپ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظ†ظپط³ط§ظ‹ ط§ظ„ط§ ظ…ط§ ط¢طھط§ظ‡ط§آ».

 Sإ«rah Baqarah, ؤ€yah 233: “No one is to be tasked except according to its capacity;â€‌ Sإ«rah Baqarah, ؤ€yah 286: “Allah does not task anybody beyond its capacity;â€‌ Sإ«rah alؤپq, ؤ€yah 7: “Allah does not task anybody except proportionate to what He has given them.â€‌

16- ط³ظˆط±ط© ظƒظ‡ظپ/ ط¢ظٹط© 66: آ«ظ‡ظ„ ط£طھظ‘ط¨ط¹ظڈظƒ ط¹ظ„ظٹ ط§ظ† طھط¹ظ„ظ‘ظ…ظ†ظگ ظ…ظ…ظ‘ط§ ط¹ظڈظ„ظ‘ظ…طھظژ ط±ظڈط´ط¯ط§ظ‹آ».

 Sإ«rah Kahf, ؤ€yah 66: “… May I follow you for the purpose that you teach me some of the probity you have been taught?â€‌

17- ظ‚ط§ظ„ ط±ط³ظˆظ„ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡(طµ) ظ„ط§ظ…ظٹط±ط§ظ„ظ…ط¤ظ…ظ†ظٹظ†(ط¹): ظٹط§ ط¹ظ„ظٹظ‘طŒ ظ„ط£ظ† ظٹظ‡ط¯ظٹ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط¨ظƒ ط±ط¬ظ„ط§ظ‹ ط®ظٹط±ط± ظ„ظƒ ظ…ظ…ظ‘ط§ ط·ظ„ط¹طھ ط¹ظ„ظٹظ‡ ط§ظ„ط´ظ…ط³. ظˆ ظ‚ط§ظ„ (طµ): ط§ظ†ظ‘ ظ…ط¹ظ„ظ‘ظ… ط§ظ„ط®ظٹط± ظٹط³طھط؛ظپط± ظ„ظ‡ ط¯ظˆط§طھ ط§ظ„ط§ط±ط¶ ظˆ ط­ظٹطھط§ظ† ط§ظ„ط¨ط­ط± ظˆ ظƒظ„ ط°ظٹ ط±ظˆط­ ظپظٹ ط§ظ„ظ‡ظˆط§ط، ظˆ ط¬ظ…ظٹط¹ ط§ظ‡ظ„ ط§ظ„ط³ظ…ط§ط، ظˆ ط§ظ„ط§ط±ط¶. ظˆ ط§ظ†ظ‘ ط§ظ„ط¹ط§ظ„ظ… ظˆ ط§ظ„ظ…طھط¹ظ„ظ‘ظ… ظپظٹ ط§ظ„ط§ط¬ط± ط³ظˆط§ط¯. ظˆ ظ‚ط§ظ„ (طµ): ط§ظ„ط¹ط§ظ„ظ… ظˆ ط§ظ„ظ…طھط¹ظ„ظ‘ظ… ط´ط±ظٹظƒط§ظ† ظپظٹ ط§ظ„ط§ط¬ط±: ظ„ظ„ط¹ط§ظ„ظ… ط§ط¬ط±ط§ظ†طŒ ظˆ ظ„ظ„ظ…طھط¹ظ„ظ‘ظ… ط§ط¬ط±طŒ ظˆ ظ„ط§ ط®ظٹط± ظپظٹ ط³ظˆظٹ ط°ظ„ظƒ. ط±.ظƒ: ط¨ط­ط§ط±ط§ظ„ط§ظ†ظˆط§ط±طŒ ط¹ظˆط§ظ„ظ…طŒ ط§طµظˆظ„ ظƒط§ظپظٹطŒ ط¨طµط§ط¦ط± ط§ظ„ط¯ط±ط¬ط§طھ ظˆ ...

The Apostle of Allah told Amؤ«r al-Mu’minؤ«n, “O Ali! For sure, if Allah guided someone through you, it would be better for you than [the possession of] all that are under the sunshine.â€‌ (Bi1ؤپr al-Anwؤپr, vol. 32, p.447, Ch. 12, No. 394 & U{إ«l al-Kؤپfi, vol. 5, p. 28); He also says, “The animals of earth, aquatic fishes, every living organism in the air, and all inhabitants of heavens and earth ask Allah forgiveness for a teacher who teaches goodness. And the scholar and the student are equal in their rewards.â€‌ (Bi1ؤپr al-Anwؤپr, vol. 1, p.217, Ch. 6, No. 40 & Ba{ؤپ’ir al-Darajؤپt, p. 3); He also is narrated as saying, “The teacher and the student share the reward: there are two rewards for the teacher and one for the student, and there is no good in anything else.â€‌ (Bi1ؤپr al-Anwؤپr, vol. 1, p.173, Ch. 1, No. 35), etc.

18- ظ‚ط§ظ„ ط±ط³ظˆظ„ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡(طµ) ظ„ط§ظ…ظٹط±ط§ظ„ظ…ط¤ظ…ظ†ظٹظ†(ط¹): ظٹط§ ط¹ظ„ظٹظ‘طŒ ظ„ط£ظ† ظٹظ‡ط¯ظٹ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط¨ظƒ ط±ط¬ظ„ط§ظ‹ ط®ظٹط±ط± ظ„ظƒ ظ…ظ…ظ‘ط§ ط·ظ„ط¹طھ ط¹ظ„ظٹظ‡ ط§ظ„ط´ظ…ط³. ظˆ ظ‚ط§ظ„ (طµ): ط§ظ†ظ‘ ظ…ط¹ظ„ظ‘ظ… ط§ظ„ط®ظٹط± ظٹط³طھط؛ظپط± ظ„ظ‡ ط¯ظˆط§طھ ط§ظ„ط§ط±ط¶ ظˆ ط­ظٹطھط§ظ† ط§ظ„ط¨ط­ط± ظˆ ظƒظ„ ط°ظٹ ط±ظˆط­ ظپظٹ ط§ظ„ظ‡ظˆط§ط، ظˆ ط¬ظ…ظٹط¹ ط§ظ‡ظ„ ط§ظ„ط³ظ…ط§ط، ظˆ ط§ظ„ط§ط±ط¶. ظˆ ط§ظ†ظ‘ ط§ظ„ط¹ط§ظ„ظ… ظˆ ط§ظ„ظ…طھط¹ظ„ظ‘ظ… ظپظٹ ط§ظ„ط§ط¬ط± ط³ظˆط§ط¯. ظˆ ظ‚ط§ظ„ (طµ): ط§ظ„ط¹ط§ظ„ظ… ظˆ ط§ظ„ظ…طھط¹ظ„ظ‘ظ… ط´ط±ظٹظƒط§ظ† ظپظٹ ط§ظ„ط§ط¬ط±: ظ„ظ„ط¹ط§ظ„ظ… ط§ط¬ط±ط§ظ†طŒ ظˆ ظ„ظ„ظ…طھط¹ظ„ظ‘ظ… ط§ط¬ط±طŒ ظˆ ظ„ط§ ط®ظٹط± ظپظٹ ط³ظˆظٹ ط°ظ„ظƒ. ط±.ظƒ: ط¨ط­ط§ط±ط§ظ„ط§ظ†ظˆط§ط±طŒ ط¹ظˆط§ظ„ظ…طŒ ط§طµظˆظ„ ظƒط§ظپظٹطŒ ط¨طµط§ط¦ط± ط§ظ„ط¯ط±ط¬ط§طھ ظˆ ...

Sإ«rah Mu1ammad, ؤ€yah 4: “…but that He may test some of you by means of others;â€‌ Sإ«rah Mu1ammad, ؤ€yah 31: “We will surely test you until We ascertain those of you who wage jihؤپd and those who are patient;â€‌ Sإ«rah ؤ€l-i â€کImrؤپn, ؤ€yah 186: “You will surely be tested in your possessions and your lives;â€‌ Sإ«rah Baqarah, ؤ€yah 155: “We will surely test you with a measure of fear and hunger and a loss of wealth, lives, and fruits; and give good news to the patient;â€‌ Sإ«rah ؤ€l-i â€کImrؤپn, ؤ€yah 154: “…so that Allah may test what is in your breasts, and that He may purge what is in your hearts;â€‌ etc.

19- ط³ظˆط±ط© ط¢ظ„ ط¹ظ…ط±ط§ظ†/ ط¢ظٹط© 104: آ«ظˆظ„طھظƒظ† ظ…ظ†ظƒظ… ط§ظ…ظ‘ط© ظٹط¯ط¹ظˆظ† ط§ظ„ظٹ ط§ظ„ط®ظٹط± ظˆ ظٹط£ظ…ط±ظˆظ† ط¨ط§ظ„ظ…ط¹ط±ظˆظپ ظˆ ظٹظ†ظ‡ظˆظ† ط¹ظ† ط§ظ„ظ…ظ†ظƒط± ...آ» ظˆ ... .

Sإ«rah ؤ€l-i â€کImrؤپn, ؤ€yah 104: “There has to be a nation among you summoning to the good, bidding what is right, and forbidding what is wrong;â€‌ etc.

20- ط³ظˆط±ط© ط¨ظ‚ط±ظ‡/ ط¢ظٹط© 251: آ«ظˆ ظ„ظˆظ„ط§ ط¯ظپط¹ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط§ظ„ظ†ط§ط³ ط¨ط¹ط¶ظ‡ظ… ط¨ط¨ط¹ط¶ ظ„ظپط³ط¯طھ ط§ظ„ط§ط±ط¶آ» ط³ظˆط±ط©â€Œط­ط¬/ ط¢ظٹط© 40: آ«ظˆ ظ„ظˆظ„ط§ ط¯ظپط¹ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط§ظ„ظ†ط§ط³ ظ…ظ† ط¨ط¹ط¶ظ‡ظ…  ط¨ط¨ط¹ط¶ ظ„ظ‡ط¯ظ‘ظ…طھ طµظˆط§ظ…ط¹ ظˆ ط¨ظٹط¹ ظˆ طµظ„ظˆط§طھ ظˆ ظ…ط³ط§ط¬ط¯ ظٹط°ظƒط± ظپظٹظ‡ط§ ط§ط³ظ… ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظƒط«ظٹط±ط§ظ‹آ».

 Sإ«rah Baqarah, ؤ€yah 251: “Were it not for Allah’s repelling the people by means of one another, the earth would surely have been corrupted;â€‌ Sإ«rah 2ajj, ؤ€yah 40: “…Had not Allah repulsed the people from one another, ruin would have befallen the monasteries, churches, synagogues and mosques in which Allah’s Name is mentioned greatly.â€‌

21- ط³ظˆط±ط© ط¢ظ„ ط¹ظ…ط±ط§ظ†/ ط¢ظٹط© 14: آ«ط²ظٹظ‘ظ† ط§ظ„ظ†ط§ط³ ط­ط¨ظ‘ ط§ظ„ط´ظ‡ظˆط§طھ ظ…ظ† ط§ظ„ظ†ط³ط§ط، ظˆ ط§ظ„ط¨ظ†ظٹظ† ظˆ ط§ظ„ظ‚ظ†ط§ط·ظٹط± ط§ظ„ظ…ظ‚ظ†ط·ط±ط© ظ…ظ† ط§ظ„ط°ظ‡ط¨ ظˆ ط§ظ„ظپط¶ظ‘ط© ظˆ ط§ظ„ط®ظٹظ„ ط§ظ„ظ…ط³ظˆظ‘ظ…ط© ظˆ ط§ظ„ط§ظ†ط¹ط§ظ… ظˆ ط§ظ„ط­ط±ط« ط°ظ„ظƒ ظ…طھط§ط¹ ط§ظ„ط­ظٹط§ط© ط§ظ„ط¯ظ†ظٹط§ ظˆط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط¹ظ†ط¯ظ‡ ط­ط³ظ† ط§ظ„ظ…ط¢ط¨آ»طŒ ط¢ظ„ ط¹ظ…ط±ط§ظ†/ 185: آ«ظˆظ…ط§ ط§ظ„ط­ظٹط§ط© ط§ظ„ط¯ظ†ظٹط§ ط§ظ„ط§ظ‘ ظ…طھط§ط¹ ط§ظ„ط؛ط±ظˆط±آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ظ‚طµطµ/ ط¢ظٹط© 60: آ«ظˆظ…ط§ ط§ظˆطھظٹطھظ… ظ…ظ† ط´ط¦ ظپظ…طھط§ط¹ ط§ظ„ط­ظٹط§ط© ط§ظ„ط¯ظ†ظٹط§ ظˆ ط²ظٹظ†طھظ‡ط§ ظˆ ظ…ط§ ط¹ظ†ط¯ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط®ظٹط± ظˆ ط§ط¨ظ‚ظٹ ط§ظپظ„ط§ طھط¹ظ‚ظ„ظˆظ†آ».

Sإ«rah ؤ€l-i â€کImrؤپn, ؤ€yah 14: “To mankind has been made to seem decorous the love of [worldly] desires, including women and children, accumulated piles of gold and silver, horses or mark, livestock, and farms. Those are the wares of the life of this world; but Allah—with Him is a good destination.â€‌ Sإ«rah ؤ€l-i â€کImrؤپn, ؤ€yah 185: “…The life of this world is nothing but the wares of delusion;â€‌ Sإ«rah Qa{a{, ؤ€yah 60: “Whatever things you have been given are only the wares of the life of this world and its glitter, and what is with Allah is better and more lasting; will you not apply reason?â€‌

22- ط§ظ„ط´ظ…ط³/ 9ظ€10: آ«ظ‚ط¯ ط§ظپظ„ط­ ظ…ظ† ط²ظƒظ‘ط§ظ‡ط§. ظˆظ‚ط¯ ط®ط§ط¨ ظ…ظ† ط¯ط³ظ‘ط§ظ‡ط§.آ» آ«ظ…ظ† ظƒط±ظ…طھ ط¹ظ„ظٹظ‡ ظ†ظپط³ظ‡ ظ‡ط§ظ†طھ ط¹ظ„ظٹظ‡ ط§ظ„ط´ظ‡ظˆط§طھآ».

Sإ«rah Shams: ؤ€yah 9-10: “One who purifies it [one’s soul] is certainly felicitous, and one who betrays it certainly fails.â€‌ Amؤ«r al-mu’minؤ«n says: “Whoever honors oneself, disregarding one’s desires becomes easy for him/herâ€‌ (Ibn Abi-al-2adؤ«d’s exegesis on Nahj al-Balؤپghah, vol. 20, p. 99).

23- ظƒظ„ظ‘ظƒظ… ط±ط§ط¹ ظˆ ظƒظ„ظ‘ظƒظ… ظ…ط³ط¤ظˆظ„ ط¹ظ† ط±ط¹ظٹظ‘طھظ‡.

ظˆظپظٹ ط±ط³ط§ظ„ط© ط§ظ„ط­ظ‚ظˆظ‚ ظ„ط²ظٹظ† ط§ظ„ط¹ط§ط¨ط¯ظٹظ†(ط¹): ظˆط§ظ…ظ‘ط§ ط­ظ‚ظ‘ ط±ط¹ظٹظ‘طھظƒ ط¨ط§ظ„ط¹ظ„ظ… ظپط£ظ† طھط¹ظ„ظ… ط§ظ†ظ‘ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط¹ط²ظˆط¬ظ„ ط§ظ†ظ‘ظ…ط§ ط¬ط¹ظ„ظƒ ظ‚ظٹظ‘ظ…ط§ ظ„ظ‡ظ… ظپظٹظ‡ط§ ط¢طھط§ظƒ ظ…ظ† ط§ظ„ط¹ظ„ظ… ظˆ ظپطھط­ ظ„ظƒ ظ…ظ† ط®ط²ط§ط¦ظ†ظ‡طŒ ظپط§ظ† ط§ط­ط³ظ†طھ ظپظٹ طھط¹ظ„ظٹظ… ط§ظ„ظ†ط§ط³  ظˆ ظ„ظ…‌طھط®ط±ظ‚ ط¨ظ‡ظ…  ظˆ ظ„ظ…‌طھط¶ط¬ط± ط¹ظ„ظٹظ‡ظ… ط²ط§ط¯ظƒ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظ…ظ†  ظپط¶ظ„ظ‡طŒ ظˆط§ظ† ط§ظ†طھ ظ…ظ†ط¹طھ ط§ظ„ظ†ط§ط³ ط¹ظ„ظ…ظƒ ظˆ ط®ط±ظ‘ظ‚طھ ط¨ظ‡ظ… ط¹ظ†ط¯ ط·ظ„ط¨ظ‡ظ… ط§ظ„ط¹ظ„ظ… ظ…ظ†ظƒ ظƒط§ظ† ط­ظ‚ظ‘ط§ظ‹ ط¹ظ„ظٹ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط¹ط²ظˆط¬ظ„ ط§ظ† ظٹط³ظ„ط¨ظƒ ط§ظ„ط¹ظ„ظ… ظˆ ط¨ظ‡ط§ط،ظ‡طŒ ظˆ ظٹط³ظ‚ط· ظ…ظ† ط§ظ„ظ‚ظ„ظˆط¨ ظ…ط­ظ„ظ‘ظƒ.

The Apostel of Allah says: “All of you are shepherds, and each and every one of you is responsible for your sheepâ€‌ (Bi1ؤپr al-Anwؤپr, vol. 72, p. 38). Imؤپm Zayn al-â€کؤپbidؤ«n writes in his Risؤپlat al-2uqإ«q, “The right of those whom you teach is that you should realize that the Almighty Allah has given you authority over them regarding the knowledge He has bestowed upon you and its treasuries He has opened for you. Therefore, if you do your best in teaching people, not treating them roughly or annoying them, Allah will given you more of His blessing, but if you withhold your knowledge from people, and treat them roughly when asked for it, it is the right of God to remove your knowledge and its associated honor, and displace your esteem from the hearts of the people.â€‌ (Man lؤپ Ya1zdur-uh al-Faqؤ«h, vol. 2, p. 621)

24- ظ„ظ‚ظ…ط§ظ†/ 33طŒ ظپط§ط·ط±/ 5: آ«ظپظ„ط§طھط؛ط±ظ†ظ‘ظƒظ… ط§ظ„ط­ظٹط§ط© ط§ظ„ط¯ظ†ظٹط§ ظˆظ„ط§ظٹط؛ط±ظ‘ظ†ظ‘ظƒظ… ط¨ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط§ظ„ط؛ط±ظˆط±آ»

Sإ«rah Luqmؤپn, ؤ€yah 33 & Sإ«rah Fؤپ}ir, ؤ€yah 5: “…So do not let the life of the world deceive you, nor let the Deceiver deceive you concerning Allah.â€‌

25- ط±ظˆظ…/ 7: آ«ظٹط¹ظ„ظ…ظˆظ† ط¸ط§ظ‡ط±ط§ظ‹ ظ…ظ† ط§ظ„ط­ظٹط§ط© ط§ظ„ط¯ظ†ظٹط§ ظˆ ظ‡ظ… ط¹ظ† ط§ظ„ط¢ط®ط±ط© ظ‡ظ… ط؛ط§ظپظ„ظˆظ†آ»طŒ ط§ط¹ط±ط§ظپ/ 205: آ«ظˆظ„ط§ طھظƒظ† ظ…ظ† ط§ظ„ط؛ط§ظپظ„ظٹظ†آ»طŒ ط§ظ†ط¨ظٹط§ط،/ 1: آ«ط§ظ‚طھط±ط¨ ط§ظ„ظ†ط§ط³ ط­ط³ط§ط¨ظ‡ظ… ظˆ ظ‡ظ… ظپظٹ ط؛ظپظ„ط© ظ…ط¹ط±ط¶ظˆظ†آ»طŒ  ظ…ظ†ط§ظپظ‚ظˆظ†/ 9: آ«ظٹط§ ط§ظٹظ‡ط§ ط§ظ„ط°ظٹظ† ط¢ظ…ظ†ظˆط§ ظ„ط§طھظ„ظ‡ظƒظ… ط§ظ…ظˆط§ظ„ظƒظ… ظˆظ„ط§ ط§ظˆظ„ط§ط¯ظƒظ… ط¹ظ† ط°ظƒط± ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظˆ ظ…ظ† ظٹظپط¹ظ„ ط°ظ„ظƒ ظپط§ظˆظ„ط¦ظƒ ظ‡ظ… ط§ظ„ط®ط§ط³ط±ظˆظ†آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط­ط¬ط±/ ط¢ظٹط© 3: آ«ط°ط±ظ‡ظ… ظٹط£ظƒظ„ظˆط§  ظˆ ظٹطھظ…طھظ‘ط¹ظˆط§  ظˆظٹظ„ظ‡ظ‡ظ… ط§ظ„ط§ظ…ظ„ ظپط³ظˆظپ ظٹط¹ظ„ظ…ظˆظ†.آ»

 Sإ«rah Rإ«m, ؤ€yah 7: “They know just an outward aspect of the life of the world, but they are oblivious of the Hereafter,â€‌ Sإ«rah Aâ€کrؤپf, ؤ€yah 205: “…and do not be among the heedless;â€‌ Sإ«rah Anbؤ«yؤپ’, ؤ€yah 1: “Mankind’s reckoning has drawn near to them, yet they are disregardful in [their] obliviousness.â€‌ Sإ«rah Munؤپfiqإ«n, ؤ€yah 9: “O you who have faith! Do not let your possessions and children distract you from the remembrance of Allah, and whoever does that—it is they who are the losers;â€‌ Sإ«rah 2ijr, ؤ€yah 3: “Leave them to eat and enjoy and to be diverted by longings. Soon they will know.â€‌

26- ط¨ظ‚ط±ظ‡/ 213: آ«ظپط¨ط¹ط« ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط§ظ„ظ†ط¨ظٹظ‘ظٹظ† ظ…ط¨ط´ظ‘ط±ظٹظ† ظˆ ظ…ظ†ط°ط±ظٹظ†آ»طŒ ظ†ط³ط§ط،/ 165: آ«ط±ط³ظ„ط§ظ‹ ظ…ط¨ط´ظ‘ط±ظٹظ† ظˆ ظ…ظ†ط°ط±ظٹظ†آ» ظˆ...

 Sإ«rah Baqarah, ؤ€yah 213: “…then Allah sent the prophets as bearers of good news and as warners;â€‌ Sإ«rah Nisؤپ’, ؤ€yah 165: “Apostles, as bearers of good news and warners;â€‌ etc.

27- ط±ط¹ط¯/ 28: آ«ط§ظ„ط°ظٹظ† ط¢ظ…ظ†ظˆط§ ظˆ طھط·ظ…ط¦ظ†ظ‘ ظ‚ظ„ظˆط¨ظ‡ظ… ط¨ط°ظƒط± ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظ„ط§ ط¨ط°ظƒط± ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ طھط·ظ…ط¦ظ† ط§ظ„ظ‚ظ„ظˆط¨آ».

Sإ«rah Raâ€کd, ؤ€yah 28: “Those who have faith, and whose hearts find rest in the remembrance of Allah. Look! The hearts find rest in Allah’s remembrance!â€‌

28- ظ…ط§ط¦ط¯ظ‡/ 2طŒ ظپطھط­/ 29طŒ ط­ط´ط±/ 8: آ«ظٹطھط¨ط؛ظˆظ† ظپط¶ظ„ط§ظ‹ ظ…ظ† ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظˆ ط±ط¶ظˆط§ظ†ط§آ»طŒ ظ†ظˆط±/ 37: آ«ط±ط¬ط§ظ„ ظ„ط§طھظ„ظ‡ظٹظ‡ظ… طھط¬ط§ط±ط© ظˆظ„ط§ ط¨ظٹط¹ ط¹ظ† ط°ظƒط± ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡آ»طŒ ط¨ظ‚ط±ظ‡/ 207: آ«ظˆ ظ…ظ† ط§ظ„ظ†ط§ط³ ظ…ظ† ظٹط´ط±ظٹ ظ†ظپط³ظ‡ ط§ط¨طھط؛ط§ط، ظ…ط±ط¶ط§طھ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡آ»طŒ ط±ط¹ط¯/ 22: آ«ظˆط§ظ„ط°ظٹظ† طµط¨ط±ظˆط§ ط§ط¨طھط؛ط§ط، ظˆط¬ظ‡ ط±ط¨ظ‘ظ‡ظ…آ»طŒ ط±ظˆظ…/ 38: آ«ط°ظ„ظƒ ط®ظٹط± ط§ظ„ط°ظٹظ† ظٹط±ظٹط¯ظˆظ† ظˆط¬ظ‡ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡آ»طŒ ط§ظ„ظ„ظٹظ„/ 20: آ«ط§ظ„ط§ظ‘ ط§ط¨طھط؛ط§ط، ظˆط¬ظ‡ ط±ط¨ظ‘ظ‡ ط§ظ„ط§ط¹ظ„ظٹآ».

Sإ«rah Mؤپ’idah, ؤ€yah 2, Sإ«rah Fat1, ؤ€yah 29, & Sإ«rah 2ashr, ؤ€yah 8: “They seek Allah’s grace and [His] pleasure;â€‌ Sإ«rah Nإ«r, ؤ€yah 37: “By men whom neither trading not bargaining distracts from the remembrance of Allah;â€‌ Sإ«rah Baqarah, ؤ€yah 207: “And among the people is he who sells his soul seeking the pleasure of Allah;â€‌ Sإ«rah Raâ€کd, ؤ€yah 22: “Those who are patient for the sake of their Lord’s pleasure;â€‌ Sإ«rah Rإ«m, ؤ€yah 38: “That is better for those who seek Allah’s pleasure;â€‌ Sإ«rah Layl, ؤ€yah 20: “…but seeks only the pleasure of his Lord, the Most Exalted.â€‌

29- طھظˆط¨ظ‡/ 111: آ« ط§ظ† ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط§ط´طھط±ظٹ ظ…ظ† ط§ظ„ظ…ط¤ظ…ظ†ظٹظ† ط§ظ†ظپط³ظ‡ظ… ظˆ ط§ظ…ظˆط§ظ„ظ‡ظ… ط¨ط§ظ†ظ‘ ظ„ظ‡ظ… ط§ظ„ط¬ظ†ظ‘ط©آ»طŒ ط­ط¯ظٹط¯/ 23: آ«ظ„ظƒظٹظ„ط§ طھط£ط³ظˆط§ ط¹ظ„ظٹ ظ…ط§ ظپط§طھظƒظ… ظˆ ظ„ط§طھظپط±ط­ظˆط§ ط¨ظ…ط§ ط¢طھط§ظƒظ… ظˆط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظ„ط§ظٹط­ط¨ظ‘ ظƒظ„ ظ…ط®طھط§ظ„ ظپط®ظˆط±آ».

Sإ«rah Tawbah, ؤ€yah 111: “Indeed Allah has bought from the faithful their souls and their possessions for paradise to be theirs;â€‌ Sإ«rah 2adؤ«d, ؤ€yah 23: “So that you may not grieve for what escapes you, not exult for what Allah gives you, and Allah does not like any swaggering braggart.â€‌

30- ظ†ط¬ظ…/ 39: آ«ظˆط§ظ† ظ„ظٹط³ ظ„ظ„ط§ظ†ط³ط§ظ† ط§ظ„ط§ظ‘ ظ…ط§ ط³ط¹ظٹآ».

Sإ«rah Najm, ؤ€yah 39: “And that nothing benefits man except what he strives for.â€‌

31- ط§ظ†ط¨ظٹط§ط،/ 28: آ«ظˆظ„ط§ ظٹط´ظپط¹ظˆظ† ط§ظ„ط§ظ‘ ظ„ظ…ظ† ط§ط±طھط¶ظٹآ».

Sإ«rah Anbؤ«yؤپ’, ؤ€yah 28: “And they do not intercede except for someone He approves of.â€‌

32- ط±.ظƒ: ط§طµظˆظ„ ظƒط§ظپظٹطŒ ط¬2طŒ طµ148ظ€149: آ«ظ‚ط§ظ„ ط§ظ„طµط§ط¯ظ‚(ط¹): ط·ظ„ط¨ ط§ظ„ط­ظˆط§ط¦ط¬ ط§ظ„ظٹ ط§ظ„ظ†ط§ط³ ط§ط³طھظ„ط§ط¨ ط§ظ„ط¹ط²ظ‘طŒ ظˆ ظ…ط°ظ‡ط¨ط© ظ„ظ„ط­ظٹط§ط،طŒ ظˆط§ظ„ظٹط£ط³ ظ…ظ…ظ‘ط§ ظپظٹ ط§ظٹط¯ظٹ ط§ظ„ظ†ط§ط³ ط¹ط²ظ‘ ط§ظ„ظ…ط¤ظ…ظ† ظپظٹ ط¯ظٹظ†ظ‡طŒ ظˆط§ظ„ط·ظ…ط¹ ظ‡ظˆ ط§ظ„ظپظ‚ط± ط§ظ„ط­ط§ط¶ط±آ».  ظˆ ظƒط§ظ† ط§ظ…ظٹط±ط§ظ„ظ…ط¤ظ…ظ†ظٹظ†(ط¹) ظٹظ‚ظˆظ„: آ«ظ„ظٹط¬طھظ…ط¹ ظپظٹ ظ‚ظ„ط¨ظƒ ط§ظ„ط§ظپطھظ‚ط§ط± ط§ظ„ظٹ ط§ظ„ظ†ط§ط³ ظˆط§ظ„ط§ط³طھط؛ظ†ط§ط، ط¹ظ†ظ‡ظ…طŒ ظپظٹظƒظˆظ† ط§ظپطھظ‚ط§ط±ظƒ ط§ظ„ظٹظ‡ظ… ظ„ظٹظ† ظƒظ„ط§ظ…ظƒ ظˆ ط­ط³ظ† ط¨ط´ط±ظƒطŒ ظˆ ظٹظƒظˆظ† ط§ط³طھط؛ظ†ط§ط¤ظƒ ط¹ظ†ظ‡ظ… ظپظٹ ظ†ط²ط§ظ‡ط© ط¹ط±ط¶ظƒ ظˆ ط¨ظ‚ط§ط، ط¹ط²ظ‘ظƒآ».

Imؤپm |ؤپdiq says, “Asking people for one’s needs is tantamount to begging for the removal of ones respect, as it destroys modesty. Disregarding what others have is equivalent to the awe for the faithful due to one’s religiosity, and coveting is a present poverty.â€‌ Imؤپm Ali used to say, “You should combine in your heart both a need for people and a self-sufficiency: your need for them is [crystallized] in your lenient talk with them and your affability, and your self-sufficiency is [revealed through] your unstained honor and continuous veneration.â€‌ (U{إ«l al-Kؤپfi, vol. 2, pp. 148-49)

33- ط±.ظƒ: ط§طµظˆظ„ ظƒط§ظپظٹطŒ ط¬2طŒ طµ86ظ€87: آ«ظ‚ط§ظ„ ط±ط³ظˆظ„ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡(طµ): ط§ظ†ظ‘ ظ‡ط°ط§ ط§ظ„ط°ظٹظ† ظ…طھظٹظ† ظپط§ظˆط؛ظ„ظˆط§ ظپظٹظ‡ ط¨ط±ظپظ‚ ظˆ ظ„ط§طھظƒط±ظ‡ظˆط§ ط¹ط¨ط§ط¯ط© ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط§ظ„ظٹ ط¹ط¨ط§ط¯ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظپطھظƒظˆظ†ظˆط§ ظƒط§ظ„ط±ط§ظƒط¨ ط§ظ„ظ…ظ†ط¨ظ‘طھ ط§ظ„ط°ظٹ ظ„ط§ ط³ظپط±ط§ظ‹ ظ‚ط·ط¹ ظˆ ظ„ط§ ط¸ظ‡ط±ط§ظ‹ ط§ط¨ظ‚ظٹآ».

The Apostle of Allah says, “This religion [of Islam] is exalted, so enter it with lenity, and do not impose the worshiping of Allah on His servants so that you are like the horse rider who falls short of destination, exhausted without completing his journey.â€‌ (U{إ«l al-Kؤپfi, vol. 2, pp. 86-87)

34- ط³ظˆط±ط© ط¨ظ‚ط±ظ‡/ ط¢ظٹط© 29: آ«ظ‡ظˆ ط§ظ„ط°ظٹ ط®ظ„ظ‚ ظ„ظƒظ… ظ…ط§  ظپظٹ ط§ظ„ط§ط±ط¶ ط¬ظ…ظٹط¹ط§ظ‹آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط­ط¯ظٹط¯/ ط¢ظٹط© 25: آ«ظ„ظ‚ط¯ ط§ط±ط³ظ„ظ†ط§ ط¨ط§ظ„ط¨ظٹظ‘ظ†ط§طھ ظˆ ط§ظ†ط²ظ„ظ†ط§ ظ…ط¹ظ‡ظ… ط§ظ„ظƒطھط§ط¨ ظˆ ط§ظ„ظ…ظٹط²ط§ظ† ظ„ظٹظ‚ظˆظ… ط§ظ„ظ†ط§ط³ ط¨ط§ظ„ظ‚ط³ط· ظˆ ط§ظ†ط²ظ„ظ†ط§ ط§ظ„ط­ط¯ظٹط¯ ظپظٹظ‡ ط¨ط£ط³ ط´ط¯ظٹط¯ ظˆ ظ…ظ†ط§ظپط¹ ظ„ظ„ظ†ط§ط³ ظˆ ظ„ظٹط¹ظ„ظ… ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظ…ظ† ظٹظ†طµط±ظ‡ ظˆ ط±ط³ظ„ظ‡ ط¨ط§ظ„ط؛ظٹط¨ ط§ظ† ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظ‚ظˆظٹظ‘ ط¹ط²ظٹط²آ».

Sإ«rah Baqarah, ؤ€yah 29: “It is He who created for you all that is in the earth;â€‌ Sإ«rah 2adؤ«d, ؤ€yah 25: “Certainly We sent Our apostles with manifest proofs, and We sent down with them the Book and the Balalnce, so that mankind may maintain justice; and We sent down iron, in which there is great might and uses for mankind, and so that Allah may know those who help Him and His apostles in [their] absence. Indeed Allah is all-strong, all-mighty.â€‌

35- ط³ظˆط±ط© ظ…ظ†ط§ظپظ‚ظˆظ†/ ط¢ظٹط© 8: آ«ظˆظ„ظ„ظ‡ ط§ظ„ط¹ط²ظ‘ط© ظˆ ظ„ط±ط³ظˆظ„ظ‡ ظˆ ظ„ظ„ظ…ط¤ظ…ظ†ظٹظ†آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ظ†ط³ط§ط،/ ط¢ظٹط© 141: آ«ظˆظ„ظ† ظٹط¬ط¹ظ„ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظ„ظ„ظƒط§ظپط±ظٹظ† ط¹ظ„ظٹ ط§ظ„ظ…ط¤ظ…ظ†ظٹظ† ط³ط¨ظٹظ„ط§آ»طŒ ط³ظˆط±ط© ط§ظ†ظپط§ظ„/ ط¢ظٹط© 60:‌ آ«ظˆ ط§ط¹ط¯ظ‘ظˆط§ ظ„ظ‡ظ… ظ…ط§ ط§ط³طھط·ط¹طھظ… ظ…ظ† ظ‚ظˆظ‘ط© ظˆ ظ…ظ† ط±ط¨ط§ط· ط§ظ„ط®ظٹظ„ طھط±ظ‡ط¨ظˆظ† ط¨ظ‡ ط¹ط¯ظˆظ‘ ط§ظ„ظ„ظ‡ ظˆ ط¹ط¯ظˆظ‘ظƒظ…آ».

Sإ«rah Munؤپfiqإ«n, ؤ€yah 8: “Yet all might belong to Allah and His Apostle, and the faithful;â€‌ Sإ«rah Nisؤپ’, ؤ€yah 141: “…And Allah will never provide the faithless any way [to prevail] over the faithful;â€‌ Sإ«rah Anfؤپl, ؤ€yah 60: “And prepare against them whatever you can of [military] power and war-horses, awing thereby the enemy of Allah, and your enemy.â€‌

36- ظ…ظ† ط§طµط¨ط­ ظ„ط§ظٹظ‡طھظ…ظ‘ ط¨ط§ظ…ظˆط± ط§ظ„ظ…ط³ظ„ظ…ظٹظ† ظپظ„ظٹط³ ط¨ظ…ط³ظ„ظ….

The Apostle of Allah says: “Whoever begins one’s day without being concerned for the affairs of Muslims, he is not a Muslim.â€‌ (U{إ«l al-Kؤپfi, vol. 2, p. 163)